Monday, May 25, 2020

Skills And Style Survey Walden University - 1178 Words

Wk2AssgnJLayman: Skills and Style Survey Walden University Ph.D. Public Policy and Administration Introduction This is an introduction to the Skills Inventory introduced in Chapter 3 of the textbook â€Å"Leadership: Theory and Practice† by Peter Northouse, a tool by which one can measure leadership strengths in three major skill areas, Technical, Human Conceptual (Northouse, 2016). An additional introduction is made to the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire, which measures the type of leadership behavior style one is most likely to practice, the task style or the degree to which you define the roles of others, or the relationship style -the degree to which you attempt to make others feel at ease (2016). Upon taking these two assessments, the responses when combined will indicate my personal leadership philosophy. When analyzed in conjunction with Katz’ Three-Skill Approach, the outcome should be in alignment with the experiential and educational leadership background I possess thus far (Katz, 1955). Leadership Skills Inventory The leadership skills inventory is a series of eighteen questions that assess three broad areas of leadership skills, technical, human and conceptual (Northouse, 2016). Scoring of the inventory is interpreted by a score ranging in either the high, moderate or low range. According to Katz, it is important for a leader to possess some combination of skills from each of these categories, however, the higher up the manager, the moreShow MoreRelatedThe Leadership : Theory And Practice772 Words   |  4 Pages Wk8AssgnJLayman: The Leadership Archetype Approach Questionnaire Walden University Ph.D. Public Policy and Administration â€Æ' Introduction This is an introduction to the Leadership Archetype Questionnaire (Kets de Vries, 2006b), introduced in Chapter 12 of the textbook â€Å"Leadership: Theory and Practice† by Peter Northouse (Northouse, 2016). The Leadership Archetype Questionnaire gauges a leader’s perception of his/her style of leadership by identifying the key leadership behaviors they displayRead MoreMy Career Goal Of Advance Practice Registered Nurse1615 Words   |  7 PagesCase Management setting where a diverse professional skill are utilized with excellent assessment and analytical skills seeking Nurse Corps Scholarship to advance my career goal of Advance Practice Registered Nurse ïÆ'Ëœ Have extensive experience in working with a broad range of medical conditions, patient care demographics and level of acuity within managed care environments in the community. Have exceptional leadership and communication skill, with proven ability to increase organization profitsRead MoreBlueprint Professional Personal Growth Part II Essay2263 Words   |  10 Pagesï » ¿ Individual Reflection : My Blueprint of Professional and Personal Growth II Mariah Kamal Walden University October 21, 2013 Abstract This paper is my analytic theorem to my Blueprint of Professional and Personal Growth from the course â€Å"Dynamic Leadership†. It gives a brief breakdown of my path to achieving my MBA. An executive summary is presented to show how the course educated me in a more systematic way and how it helped me identify my qualities as a leader and my values. FurthermoreRead MoreThe Career Goal Of Advance Practice Registered Nurse1614 Words   |  7 Pagesand Case Management setting where a diverse professional skill are utilized with excellent assessment and analytical skills seeking Nurse Corps Scholarship to advance my career goal of Advance Practice Registered Nurse ïÆ'Ëœ Have extensive experience in working with a broad range of medical conditions, patient care demographics and level of acuity within managed care environments in the community. Have exceptional leadership and communication skill, with proven ability to increase organization profitsRead MoreModel Thesis31971 Words   |  128 PagesWalden University COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY This is to certify that the doctoral dissertation by William Yaw Adufutse has been found to be complete and satisfactory in all respects, and that any and all revisions required by the review committee have been made. Review Committee Dr. James Schiro, Committee Chairperson, Applied Management and Decision Sciences Faculty Dr. Thea Singer, Committee Member, Applied Management and Decision Sciences Faculty Dr. Lilburn Hoehn, Committee MemberRead MoreBlueprint For Professional And Personal Growth1802 Words   |  8 PagesAdeyemi Walden University 10/17/2015 Blueprint for Professional Personal Growth EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I am a MBA student taking different courses to develop a great understanding of the various aspects that businesses entails. I want to be well –versed in a variety of other areas that will make me confident in my career. ACCOMPLISHMENTS The contents and assignment in this course has helped me understand the various theories of leadership and how different leadership styles can haveRead MoreChocloate case study6315 Words   |  26 PagesISSUES IN ACCOUNTING EDUCATION Vol. 28, No. 3 2013 pp. 637–652 American Accounting Association DOI: 10.2308/iace-50464 Dream Chocolate Company: Choosing a Costing System Kip R. Krumwiede and W. Darrell Walden ABSTRACT: This case is about a small, but real, company, Dream Chocolate (D.C.), which makes custom-labeled, high-quality candy bars for special events and advertising purposes. Like many small companies, D.C. has an inadequate costing system and needs a much better one as it starts to getRead MoreBlueprint Professional Personal Growth Part - Managing People Promoting Collaboration - My Future as a Manager3767 Words   |  16 Pagesï » ¿ Individual Reflection : My Blueprint of Professional and Personal Growth My Future as a Manager Collaboration Skills Mariah Kamal Walden University December 22, 2013 Abstract This paper is my analytic theorem to my Blueprint of Professional and Personal Growth from the course â€Å"Managing People Promoting Collaboration†. It gives a brief breakdown of my path to become a manager I aspire to be, how my relationship with my family, partner and work can be a root of my happiness andRead MoreThe of Leadership in shaping organizational culture Essay4035 Words   |  17 Pagesï » ¿ The Role of Leadership in Shaping Organizational Culture Armen Avetisyan Walden University Abstract In this paper I have tried to analyze the role of leadership in shaping of organizational culture. Also I have briefly touched the definition of culture, historical overview of leadership theory development’s issue and what impact have traits approaches, skills approach, style approach and also ethical approach on creating of organizational culture for healthy organization. Read MoreEssay on Booker T. Washington2149 Words   |  9 Pageslast name and chose Washington, his stepfathers name. After the Civil War Booker, his brother, and his mother moved to Malden, West Virginia were they went to live with his stepfather, whom they had only seen a few times. When they arrived in Walden, Washington was no more than 10 years old. However, he immediately went to work with his stepfather at the salt mines feeding the furnace. His education started with a Websters Blue Black spelling book that his mother had provided him. She hoped

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Graduation Speech My New College Environment Essay

Eighteen candles blazed before my eyelids as family and friends chimed Las Mananitas around my twin sister and I. The song concluded with cheers and chants from all sides, as my cousin yells out, â€Å"Make a wish!† I closed my eyes and repeated the same wish I had for the last three years. Taking a deep breath in, it whispered from the recesses of my mind, I wish to change. When I entered my teen years the stronger my wish for a transformation of some kind, physical or emotional grew. I cannot pinpoint the moment I stopped liking the type of person I was and spent high searching for communities hoping they would be my catalyst with no avail. As I entered college, I hoped Los Angeles would be my place of transformation, but adjusting to my new college environment proved challenging and as the semester wore on my wish became a faint memory. Although I was only eight hours away from the Bay Area the homesickness never left me. Longing for my large intimate family and realized I would needed to find a community at my college if I were to survive emotionally. I attended meetings for different cultural clubs, the only places I felt accepted due to the lack of cultural diversity on campus. They were enjoyable yet lacked the intimacy I craved. I wanted a place I could call home,where I could grow, challenge myself, and contribute to the campus environment. When I heard about Sigma Lambda Gamma Sorority being the only multicultural Greek organization at my institution I was intrigued.Show MoreRelatedGraduation Speech : Mathematics As A Computer Technician1270 Words   |  6 PagesIn my last speech I joked around about my dad and his degree in mathematics as a computer technician saying that it was such an odd match up; but in reality, it couldn’t have worked out better. Though the concept of math does not directly appl y to his current position; he still utilizes the deep analytical skills that he obtained during his years of calculus to solve problem solving issues that arise with the computers. Education has value in many respects, ranging from the social connections thatRead MorePersonal Statement : Public Schools1030 Words   |  5 Pages Boswell Statement Essay My contribution to NYC public schools children in education has been extensive. I first began working in NYC public schools as a speech pathologist in 1980. I would examine expressive and receptive language skills of children and through task analyses develop strategies of language acquisition. In short, I was able to gets students to improve their reading and writing skills in order to master grade level competencies. In my educational journey, I was recruited by PrincipalRead MoreThe Red Black by Stendhal1656 Words   |  7 PagesGeorgia’s student run newspaper. It was a story about hate speech that had been posted on the Facebook pages of two University groups. â€Å"Why can’t you dumb dirty n****s stop stinking up the place? Let UGA be RIGHT for good WHITE Christian students.† This had been posted onto The Black Affairs Council Facebook page. â€Å"Burn in hell f****s† was posted on the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Resource Center†™s Facebook page. It brought back memories of my very first year at UGA as a student back in 1997.Read MoreWhy Is A College Education Important to Me? Essays751 Words   |  4 PagesSeptember 26, 2014 Why Is A College Education Important to Me? Henry Ford, said, â€Å"Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young.† For years, I thought I was just too old to return to school. However, for 20 years, I’ve worked in a career that provided great financial stability, but it never brought happiness. When I was laid-off, I made the decision to not return to the corporate world; instead, I started my process of becoming a successfulRead MoreResponsible Software Engineering Personal Statement793 Words   |  4 PagesI am a college graduate in Computer Science aspiring to pursue masters, specializing in Human-Computer Interaction. During my final year in college, I worked on a project to identify large scale threats to public life by classifying RSS news feeds. Since we had to narrow down the genre to identify events like accidents and disasters, we applied NLP techniques before applying typical classification methods like SVM. We did tokenization, Part-of-Speech tagging, subject-verb relation and sentimentRead MoreDon Name Changed For Confidentiality Essay1297 Words   |  6 Pagesoccupational therapist. When Ben first started working with the program he was afraid to get near the horse and did not even want to come close enough to get on let alone pet the horse. We worked with him on deep breathing techniques, muscle control and some speech therapy. By the end of the eight-week session we worked with Ben, he was able to not only get near the horse, but by the last day, he was giving the horse a kiss on the nose. His mother said that the deep breathing techniques that we equipped himRead MoreSpeech : My Insp irational President Obama Essay919 Words   |  4 Pages My Inspirational President Obama Introduction I have never seen a person so good at giving public speeches in my entire life. That person became memorable in my life immediately after I saw/heard him speaking on television in front of a thousand people as he became the first African-American president of the United States of America. I thought this person simply cannot be an African-American, but the most honorable gentleman. He introduced himself without a fear, but with confidence andRead MoreMy Inspirational President Obam An African American President Of The United States Essay942 Words   |  4 PagesMy Inspirational President Obama I have never seen a person so good at giving public speeches in my entire life. That person became memorable in my life immediately after I saw/heard him speaking on television in front of a thousand people as he became the first African-American president of the United States of America. I thought this person simply cannot be an African-American, but the most honorable gentleman. He introduced himself without a fear, but with confidence and belief thatRead MorePersuasive Essay On Homeschool834 Words   |  4 PagesImagine a child who has never experienced the joys of a school dance, never had the chance to participate in a formal graduation, and was never able to experience the small joys of pleasant cafeteria banter: this is the life of most homeschooled children. Today, most students will attend typical public or private schools, but a few students choose to travel down different paths like homeschooling. Homeschooling is a form of education that is primarily taught at home and typically involves one-on-oneRead MoreComputer Science At The University Of Arkansas At Little Rock1241 Words   |  5 PagesI did my Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering Technology (BUET). From the very beginning I took every opportunity to get specialized in various areas of computer science and engineering. Very recently I have completed my first semester of study towards the MS degree in Computer Science at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. I have successfully completed project works in trending areas of artificial intelligence, image processing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gang Violence On Our Streets - 1514 Words

Gang Violence In Our Streets Gang violence has been around for a long time all the way back to the 1800 and have greatly increased all around the globe ever since. Gangs are a group of people that fight and kill other gangs over turf,money,pride, and drugs. People usually join gangs from around the age of 8 to the age 20. Most gang members join because they have been abused by their parents or because they don t have a family. Gangs treat each other like a family, that is the most common reason why people join, they want to be accepted, they want to feel like if they belong something. The people who are most affected by this are usually always the most innocent. Enemy gangs usually do drive-by’s which are meant to kill an enemy gang usually end up killing innocent pedestrians walking down the street. Business owners are also being involved by this. Gangs usually use abandoned houses or businesses as a way to mark their turf. They also graffiti on business walls which lead to a loss in customers which lead to a loss in money for the business which leads to the business shutting down leaving yet another abandoned house for the gang.Most gangs also break into houses at night and steal from the home residents often killing them or robbing them of all their prized possessions.They are also almost always involved in gang wars where they kill enemy gang members so that they can gain more turf. Gangs also usually smuggle immigrants throughShow MoreRelatedShould Street Gangs Be Considered Terrorist Organizations?1711 Words   |  7 PagesShould Street Gangs be Cons idered Terrorist Organizations? Terror, violence, and death are the common denominators in our society nowadays. Why? Because of street gang fights. Innocent people have been killed as a result of street gangs. These groups of criminals use violence against societies and band together for mutual protection and profit. Street gangs are gangsters controlling, attacking, and killing people on the streets, as a result, they are one of the biggest social problems around theRead MoreStreet Gangs : Americas Growing Problem1056 Words   |  5 PagesStreet Gangs: Americas’ Growing Problem Gangs have increasingly become a serious problem over the past few decades. A report from the FBI’s 2011 National Gang threat assessment states that there are 1.4 million active gang members comprising of more than 33,000 gangs in the United States. This growth migration of gangs has had a negative effect on our youth. Gang violence causes fear and changes how kids behave in school. In a poll of 2,000 teenagers, â€Å"the respondents reported that their fearsRead MoreBeowulf and Death Row Records791 Words   |  4 Pagespast era infiltrate our everyday lives. These barbaric warriors are found in our society as street gangs. Although they have different appearances, weapons, and transportation, these two civilizations conduct their lives in the same way. Street gangs are so prevalent that they are all over the media, appearing in films, music, and television. Although street gangsters and pagan warriors lived at very different times, both groups embody the same ideals: strength, violence,and loyalty to theirRead MoreGun Violence1218 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿The Gangs In Our Communities By: Adam Taylor What set do you claim? Isn’t that a question we all hear at some point in our school years and maybe sometimes even after. Well I remember being in elementary school and not having to worry about nothing but recess. Those were the days of no worries and no stress. Then came middle school and that’s when things begin to change. Middle school is more about who you hang out with and how you dress. That’s where most of it starts. At the level of middleRead MoreThe Death Of Gang Research1637 Words   |  7 Pagesterm â€Å"gang† was associated with groups in socially disorganized and deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods: It was applied to juveniles who engaged in a variety of delinquencies, ranging from truancy, street brawls, and beer running to race riots, robberies, and other serious crimes (Regoli, Hewitt, DeLisi, 2011). There were several gangs within the United States, which included street gangs, prison gangs, motorcycle gangs, and organized crime gan gs that still exist today. The word â€Å"gang† is derivedRead MoreEssay on Violence733 Words   |  3 PagesViolence is one of the most problematic issues society faces today, and it has been increasing day after day, in the streets of our cities. The most common description of what violence really is can be given as negativity towards something or someone either through physical or verbal actions, which often causes the victim to suffer pain. The different types of violence that exist in our multi-cultural society are out-numbered, but the most evident ones are domestic, gang, sexual, and racial violenceRead MoreProblem Solution Essay1641 Words   |  7 PagesProblem solution essay Final Draft. GANG VIOLENCE IN AMERICAN SCHOOLS There are approximately 27,900 gangs, with 774,000 members, impacting towns, cities, and communities across the United States. According to a recent bulletin released by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 23 percent of students aged 12 through 18 years reported presence of street gangs in their schools. Almost half (46%) of students in public schools reported street gang presence. In addition, 21 percentRead MoreGang Violence And The United States1470 Words   |  6 PagesGangs have been a part of American culture in the United States since the early 19th century when immigrant youth organized themselves into street gangs as a means of urban and economic survival. Today, gang violence has reached an almost catastrophic level in the United States. Criminal street gangs have become one of the most serious crime problems in California. Gang violence accounts for one of the largest personal threats to public safety for nearly all the cities in this state. Salinas , CaliforniaRead More Gang Violence in the United States Essay1192 Words   |  5 PagesGang Violence in the United States Gang violence in America is reaching alarming proportions. Chicago police Commander Donald Hilbring states, Gangs are everywhere. All throughout the city of Chicago, the suburbs, throughout the state, throughout the nation. Chicago police state that so far this year, more than 100 gang-related murders have occurred. Everyday an other report on the evening news relays the tragedy of a child accidently caught in gang crossfire. The image of blackRead MorePersuasive Essay921 Words   |  4 PagesPersuasive Essay Raquel Daniel COMM/215 Essentials of College Writing July 7, 2011 Cassundra Flemister-White Persuasive Essay Gangs Gangs are killing our upcoming generations. Gangs have always been around for many years and they are still growing. They are becoming more violent now because they are using more than just their body parts to beat up people. These gangs are killing and raping people. It used to be about colors and different language but now it is about something different. It used

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Global Law

Question: Discuss about theGlobal Law. Answer: Introduction: It has been assessed that many refugees have been entered in Australia illegally, but the Australian government has not been responding to their immigration policies. According to the 1951 Refugee Convention, the refugees should not be forced to other nations, where they have faced serious threats and problems. Therefore, it has become an international law for all countries so that all countries can support the refugees for protecting the refugees for their reimbursement. However, the Australian government has reduced the implementation and obligation of this international law for protecting the refugees. The overall discussion of this study has been stated the reason behind the negligence of this law by Australian states. Along with this, it has been stated the reason behind their self-interest and moral factors. States Comply with Their Public International Law Obligations: The refugee convention has been taken place during 28 July 1951 with the support of United Nations for protecting the European refugees, who have been suffered from World War II. This international law has become liable and binding for all nations for protecting the European refugees. As a result, the number of refugees has been an increase in huge number and several Australia has been faced economic problem for protecting the refugees. Along with this, the Article 33 has stated that the refugees should not be sent to their nation, where they have been faced threats and problems. In this case, the national government is liable to help them for making them migrant for that nation (Refugeecouncil.org.au, 2016). In the words of Phillips and Spinks (2013, p.79), the public international law has been cleared the nationalised government should take care of their civilians and should mitigate all issues for their risk-free lives. In this case, all possibilities will need to be provided to the civilians for their better lives. In opposed to that Fozdar and Hartley (2013, p.161), commented and cleared that due to changing issues during post world war II, the nations have been faced several economic problems. However, due to international law obligation, the nations were able to maintain the law. In this case, the Australian government has been started to protect the refugees and helped them for their refurbishment, but that was for short-term only. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been served their protocol to all nations for co-operating with them for saving and protecting the refugees for their lives' reimbursement. From the viewpoint of Vrachnas et al. (2011, p.110), the illegal refuge interference in Australia has been increased and that has been reduced the economic development and GDP improvement. That is the reason in the context of when the Australian government has been taken the step in opposite to the international law of 1951 Refugee Convention. On the other hand, the Public International Law has stated for helping the national level civilians and fulfils their needs. Therefore, necessary development activities will need to be taken place by national level governments. However, the post stage of Second World War has been fragile the lives of many Europeans. Therefore, the United Nations has been passed the Refugee Convention. Along with this, the Refugee Convention of 1951 has stated few rights for the refugees and their lives. For example: freedom of religion, right to work for survival, right to education, right to have equal medical treatment etcetera. That means all legal rights for the civilians of a nation have been allocated for the refugees also for supporting towards the refurbishment of their lives. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has also been contributed their efforts for refugee convention (Refugeecouncil.org.au, 2016). However, it has become an issue towards the development of national economic development and scarcity of commodity and supply. Moreover, it has increased the national level demand, because the refugees were not able to work or contribute their effort for work or education of national economic development of their hostage nations. Therefore, for a time instance, the national government would need to take care of them for their regain and need to provide monetary support also so that they can start their earning activities (Nethery et al. 2013, p.103). However, Correa-Velez et al. (2012, p.114) stated that the refugee convention law of 1951 has become a serious issue for economic development and national infrastructure development for Australia. Therefore, the Australian government has been stopped the immigration process for the refugees as the population of refugees has largely increased. All the discussed scenarios have been taken place by the Australian government for refugee convention and due to changing the economic background of the nation, the government has been changed their policies to stop immigration for the refugees. Along with this, the Australian government is not authorised to take out the refugees from the country. Therefore, they are liable to keep them, but no immigration policy has been authorised for their permanent residence. According to Nethery and Gordyn (2014, p.189), in some cases, it has been evaluated that the incomer refugees have been involved in illegal activities like smuggling etcetera. In Asian countries, such kind of activities has been measured and many of the activists have been sentenced to imprisonment for years for doing such kind of illegal activities. Therefore, few nations have been banned the immigration policy for a foreigner or staying without any legal permission. Reason Behind the States do so in their Self-Interest or Morally Irresistible: All of the relevant issues of refugee convention have been discussed with proper justification. That means it has been cleared that the 1951 refugee convention law has become profitable for homeless refugees and has been raised problems for the nations. Therefore, the Australian government has been denied for running the global law of refugee convention. Several reports have been stated that the global law of refugee convention and cooperation of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been mitigated the issue of shelter for the victim of World War II. The step of refugee convention was necessary at the beginning because it was necessary to rebuild the economic infrastructure of a European nation and place the Europeans in other nations. Nevertheless, this policy will need to be kept on hold after refurbishment. As per the statement of Newman et al. (2013, p.317), the Australian government has been signed-in the refugee convention on 22 January of 1954. Therefore, the country has become bound to give shelter the refugees and provide necessary commodities for their survival. Along with this, the Australian government has been provided with all public rights of the refugees. In the contrary, Fox (2010, p.391) has stated that for settlement of post-World War II contribution from all nations was necessary. In this context, where several nations have been signed the global policy for refugee convention, there was not a serious region for Australian government for not signing-in. Therefore, this issue has been aroused. However, this policy would need to be on hold, when all issues have been mitigated but that has not been done by UN and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). On the other hand, several jeopardise situations have been taken place in Australia due to the refugee convention law. Australian governmental justice has been sentenced several foreigner refugees for imprisonment for their illegal activities within the Australian nation. That has become a serious issue for the Australian government, which has laid down Australian policies for maintaining social values within the nation. That was not just the problem for Australia; it has been faced by several nations. Therefore, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been decided to stop more than 700,000 asylum applications in 2012 worldwide. On the other hand, the Australian government has been faced scarcity issues due to increased of refugees, which has been increased the population. Along with this, a new national budget has been framed for refurbishment and World Bank has also supported for providing financial supports for their survival. That means debt issues also has been aroused for Australian government (Lowyinstitute.org, 2016). Those were the reasons behind the stopping the refugee convention by the Australian government. All the national issues and self-interest issues have been incorporated by the Australian government. In this regard, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been supported to stop the illegal interference and migration of refugees worldwide. Conclusion: Throughout the study, several issues have been considered in the context of which has been taken place in Australia. A common issue, which has aroused is about illegal interference and illegal activities within hostage nations. The increasing crime level in nations also affects the local civilians. Therefore, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been passed the order to stop migration for around 700,000 refugees worldwide. This study has been incorporating the reason behind failure of refugee convention in Australia and it has been justified that the reasons are valid for stopping the policy by the Australian government. All of the relevant issues of refugee convention have been discussed with proper justification. That means it has been cleared that the 1951 refugee convention law has become profitable for homeless refugees and has been raised problems for the nations. Therefore, the Australian government has been denied for running the global law of refugee convention. List of References and Bibliography: Aph.gov.au(2016),www.aph.gov.au,Available from: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp0001/01RP05 [Accessed on 22 Aug 2016] Betts, A. and Loescher, G., (2011). Refugees in international relations. Oxford University Press. Correa-Velez, I., Spaaij, R. and Upham, S., (2012). We are not here to claim better services than any other: social exclusion among men from refugee backgrounds in urban and regional Australia. Journal of Refugee Studies, pp. 89-128 Fox, P.D., (2010). International Asylum and Boat People: The Tampa Affair and Australia's Pacific Solution. Md. J. Int'l L., 25, p.356-481 Fozdar, F. and Hartley, L., (2013). Refugee resettlement in Australia: What we know and need to know. Refugee Survey Quarterly, pp. 118-182 Lowyinstitute.org (2016), www.lowyinstitute.org, Available from: https://www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/australia-and-1951-refugee-convention [Accessed on 22 Aug 2016] Nethery, A. and Gordyn, C., (2014). AustraliaIndonesia cooperation on asylum-seekers: a case of incentivised policy transfer. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 68(2), pp.177-193. Nethery, A., Rafferty-Brown, B. and Taylor, S., (2013). Exporting detention: Australia-funded immigration detention in Indonesia. Journal of Refugee Studies, 26(1), pp.88-109. Newman, L., Proctor, N. and Dudley, M., (2013). Seeking asylum in Australia: immigration detention, human rights and mental health care. Australasian Psychiatry, 21(4), pp.315-320. Pastore, A., (2012). Why Judges Should Not Make Refugee Law: Australia's Malaysia Solution and the Refugee Convention. Chi. J. Int'l L., 13, pp.615-712 Phillips, J. and Spinks, H., (2013). Boat arrivals in Australia since 1976. Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Parliamentary Library: Australian Government. Refugeecouncil.org.au (2016), www.refugeecouncil.org.au, Available from: https://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/getfacts/international/internationalsystem/the-refugee-convention/ [Accessed on 22 Aug 2016] Robinson, K., (2013). Voices from the front line: Social work with refugees and asylum seekers in Australia and the UK. British Journal of Social Work, pp.40-88 Unhcr.org (2016), www.unhcr.org, Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/uk/1951-refugee-convention.html [Accessed on 22 Aug 2016] Vrachnas, J., Bagaric, M., Dimopoulos, P. and Pathinayake, A., (2011). Migration and refugee law: Principles and practice in Australia. Cambridge University Press.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Strength and Conditioning Article Critique

â€Å"Strength Training for the Warfighter† an article by William Kraemer and Tunde Szivak discusses methods that can be used to make endurance training for soldiers and professional athletes more effective.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Strength and Conditioning Article Critique specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kraemer and Szivak deviate from the traditional methods used in endurance training for soldiers which focused on physical fitness. Kraemer and Szivak propose that endurance training for soldiers should be based on mission requirements that involve tailoring endurance training programs to meet the psychological, physical, and environmental challenges encountered on the battlefield. These scholars maintain that the main purpose of endurance training programs is to increase power and maximal strength because they are the basis of neuromuscular fitness. Another aim of endurance or resistance traini ng is to shield soldiers from injuries and improve performance (Kraemer , Szivak, 2012). Kraemer and Szivak argue that in order to come up with effective endurance training programs, one needs to understand physiological principles of power and strength development. In order to make muscles more powerful, an endurance training program should be designed in a way that stimulate more motor units. Current endurance training programs used by the military are ineffective because they stimulate a few motor units. In designing an effective endurance training program, certain variables need to be taken into consideration.Advertising Looking for article on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These include choice of the program, order of exercises, load resistance used, rest between exercises, and number of sets. These variables should be designed to enable concurrent training, which is training both the anaerobic and aero bic metabolic systems (Kraemer , Szivak, 2012). Lastly, Kraemer and Szivak also stress on the need of paying attention to workout styles. In regard to this, Kraemer and Szivak advocate for a flexible nonlinear approach because it incorporates several workouts. Ideally, in endurance training, one should start with minor workouts, followed by light workouts, moderate workouts, heavy workouts, and finally very heavy workouts (Kraemer , Szivak, 2012). Kraemer and Szivak make important points when it comes to designing endurance programs for soldiers. Currently, soldiers are subjected to heavy endurance training, mainly in the form of long-distance running that is not compatible with their needs in the battle field (Ferruggia, 2008). Additionally, long-distance running does not give soldiers the necessary muscle mass and strength they need to deal with the challenges on the modern battlefield. This is because it does not train the relevant muscles and motor units. Kraemer and Szivak†™s proposition that military endurance training should be tailored to meet the needs of soldiers is essential.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Strength and Conditioning Article Critique specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kraemer and Szivak’s proposal for designing military endurance programs is also useful. They suggest that military endurance programs do not have to be linear and rigid. Military commanders and trainers should let soldiers engage in exercises, they feel comfortable with without forcing them to stick to a strict training schedule. In addition, Kraemer and Szivak maintain that effective endurance training programs should allow soldiers adequate rest between training sessions. This is useful as the current military endurance training programs overwork soldiers, leading to depletion and damage to their muscles, instead of building them (Baechle , Earle, 2008). Kraemer and Szivak clearly ind icate that effective endurance training programs are not based on long training hours and heavy physical exercises, but on understanding the needs of soldiers in the battlefield and body physiology. However, Kraemer and Szivak fail to elaborate what types of exercises are effective in endurance training. References Baechle, T. R., Earle, R. W. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Ferruggia, J. (2008). Fit to fight: an insanely effective strength and conditioning program for the ultimate MMA warrior. New York: Avery. Kraemer, W. J., Szivak, T. K. (2012). Strength Training For the Warfighter. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(7): 107–118. This article on Strength and Conditioning Article Critique was written and submitted by user Ricky R. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Shrm and Strategic Fit Essays

Shrm and Strategic Fit Essays Shrm and Strategic Fit Paper Shrm and Strategic Fit Paper Introduction ‘Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is concerned with the development and implementation of people strategies which are integrated with corporate strategies and ensure that the culture, values and structure of the organization and the quality, motivation and commitment of its members contribute fully to the achievement of its goals’ Armstrong (1991, p. 81). While human resource management (HRM) focuses on the potential and actual productive value of ‘human resources’ (HR) to an organization success, SHRM takes a more long-run focus by emphasizing the need of HR plans and strategies to be formulated within the framework of overall organizational strategies and objectives, and to be responsive to the changing nature of the organizations external environment. The emphasis of SHRM is on strategic integration, which is matching HRM strategies to business strategy. Refer to Appendix 1 for the characteristics of SHRM. Figure 1: Strategic alignment between HRM and its internal and external environment. Source: Nankervis, Campton and Baird (2002, p. 41) ‘SHRM is a model of practice, which like all models, require interpretation and adaptation by HR practitioners to ensure the most suitable alignment or fit between HR and business strategies and plans’ Nankervis, Compton and Baird (2002, p. 42). Figure 1 above shows the strategic alignment of HRM and internal and external environment. Refer to Appendix 2 for the reasons for HR strategies. Figure 2: Gaining competitive advantage through SHRM Source: Fottler, Phillips, Blair and Duran (1990) Figure 2 provides an outline for determining and focusing on desired outcomes and anticipating essential HRM actions required for successful implementation of a company’s business strategy. This process stretch management thinking about HR and influence decisions affecting people. ‘The strategic approach to HRM includes: ?Assessing the organization’s environment and mission ?Formulating the organization’s business strategy ?Assessing the HR requirements based on the intended strategy ? Comparing the current inventory of HR in terms of numbers, characteristics, and HRM practices with respect to the strategic requirements of the organization and its services or product lines ? Formulating the HR strategy based on the differences between the new requirements and an assessment of the current inventory ? Implementing the appropriate HR practices to reinforce the strategy and achieve competitive advantage’ Fottler, Phillips, Blair and Duran (1990). Strategic staffing Staffing is defined by Mondy and Noe (2005, p. ) as ‘the process through which an organization ensure that it always has the proper number of employees with the appropriate skills in the right job, at the right time, to achieve the organization’s objectives’. There are many different types of decisions that have to be made relating to an organization staffing requirements. Organizations need to decide upon replacing existing staff, providing training to the staff, selecting people who can adapt to the culture of the organization and continuing and inevitable change, promoting, transferring, demoting and releasing people from the workforce when making strategic staffing decisions. Strategic staffing is the process of implementing a plan of action to secure the needed talent through recruitment, selection, promotion and transfer. Strategic staffing need to be implemented for organizations to get the right people at the right time for achieving the goals and objective of the organization. Nankervis, Compton and Baird (2002, p. 79) stated ‘HR planning is to try to ensure that organizational objectives are met through the effective utilization of the human resource of the organization, taking into account changing circumstances within and outside particular organizations’. The staffing function encompasses the implementation of the HR planning process. Strategies like internal growth make it vital for organizations to make strategic staffing decisions. Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright (2006, p. 74) mentioned ‘Growth requires that a company constantly hire, transfer, and promote individuals, and expansion into different markets may change the necessary skills that prospective employees must have’. To gain a competitive advantage this makes is important for organizations to realize the staffing needs and make strategic staffing policies in alignment with the organizational strategies. When staffing process is carried out strategically it ensures managers that the organization’s human resources would consist not only of educated or skilled workforce. Skilled and educated workforce can contribute to the effective and efficient performance and productivity of organizations as this would help organizations to achieve a competitive advantage. Strategic performance management Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright (2006, p. 330) defined performance management as ‘the process through which managers ensure that employees activities and outputs are congruent with the organization’s goals’. The aim of performance management is to establish a culture in which employees take responsibility for continuous improvement of business processes and their own skills and contributions. Performance management is central to gaining competitive advantage. Performance management have three parts, defining performance, measuring performance and feeding back performance. Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright (2006, p. 330) stated ‘performance management measures performance through performance appraisals, which is the only one method of for managing employee performance’. Performance management has come to encompass much more than just appraisals. ‘A major trend in performance management is that while employee appraisals are the heart of performance management, organizations are now integrating a number of closely related functions including compensation, succession planning and goal management into the performance management process’ Loucks (2007). This holistic approach enables HR professionals to manage talent and supporting strategic goals to achieve competitive advantage. The strategic purpose of performance management links employee activities to organizational goals and objectives. Performance appraisals can be used to motivate and improve performance of employees. By identifying internal strengths and weaknesses managers can focus on areas where there is need for improvement to make an organization to be productive to achieve the goals and objectives. Anthony, Kacmar and Perrewe (2002, p. 355) mentioned ‘a well designed performance appraisal system can encourage individuals to work together as a team. If this is an organizational goal, it must face several challenges in designing and implementing such a system’. An effective performance management can help managers to implement strategies. Performance evaluations will have greater impact on strategy implementation when evaluators make meaningful distinctions among different levels of performance. ‘In a highly competitive knowledge-based economy, performance management is taking its place in boardrooms across the country. Faced with pressures including the aging workforce and skills shortage, executives are becoming more involved in the performance management process as they realize that well-executed performance management strategies can help them get better results for the company’ Loucks (2007). As Loucks mentioned the strategic importance of performance management are mounting. There is need for organizations to follow systems that elicit job performance that is consistent with the organization’s goals and strategies as it helps companies to gain competitive advantage. Strategic human resource development (SHRD) Noe (2005, p. 45) defines strategic training and development as ‘learning-related activities that a company should take to help achieve its business strategy’. SHRD is about improving and widening the skills of employees by training and development, by helping people to grow within the organization, and by allowing them to make better use of their skills and abilities to attain the strategic goals and objectives. The Figure 3 below is a model that shows the processes of strategic planning that begin by identifying business strategy. Next, strategic training and development initiatives that support the strategy are selected. Interpreting these strategic training and development initiatives into actual training and development activities is the next step of the process. The final step involves the identifying of measures used to determine if training helped contribute to goals related to business strategy. Figure 3: The strategic training and development process Source: Noe (2005, p. 43) The strategic training and development initiatives are based on the business environment, an understanding of the company’s goals and resources, an insight of potential training and development options. Noe (2005, p. 45) mentioned ‘strategic training and development initiatives provide the company with road map to guide specific training and development activities. They also show how the training function will help the company reach its goals (and in doing so, show how the training function will add value)’. Refer to Appendix 3 for the strategic training and development initiatives and their implications. SHRD’s focus is first on the strategic level, which deals with overall aims and objectives and formulation of plans and policies. Secondly this interconnects to managerial level focusing on the process by which the organization obtains and allocates resources to achieve its strategic objectives. Finally it is linked to the operational level, the hands on and day to day processes of managing and organizing of work. Leopold, Harris and Watson (2005, p. 59) explained ‘Thus SHRD may be considered as a range of culturally sensitive interventions linked vertically to business goals and strategy, and horizontally to other HR and business activities, to actively encourage and support employee learning, commitment and involvement throughout the organization’. Investigating training needs is used in combination with environmental scanning and assessment of external forces and internal strengths and weaknesses of an organization to anticipate or respond to indentified challenges and opportunities. Such reactions maybe rooted in the here-and-now of skills deficit analyses and meeting gaps. This is assuring that employee development is ‘fit for purpose’. Leopold, Harris and Watson (2005, p. 353) stated ‘ ‘fit for future’ agenda maybe responding to anticipated skills needed and gaps and is also part of a wider reflection of changes in the labour market, for example attracting potential employees into areas where there are perceived likelihood of skills shortage’. Leopold, Harris and Watson (2005, p. 353) also stated ‘ Much of the language associated with increasing access to ‘learning opportunities’ through workplace activities is linked to increasing the (for-profit) organization’s competitive advantage. Language such as enhancing sustainability increasing efficiency and effectiveness; of increasing commitment of employees; of creating learning environment where unique skills of employees can be exploited for current needs and for the long-term survival of the company’. Strategic compensation and reward In the development of a pay system and reward systems, several policies must be made. Three of the most important are pay level policies, pay structure policy and types of rewards offered. Anthony, Kacmar and Perrewe (2002, p. 398) stated ‘an organization’s pay level is simply the average wage paid for a specific group of jobs. Pay level is important because if influence both organization’s ability to attract and retain competent employees and its competitive position in the product market. Pay level policy refers to how an organization’s pay level compares with its competitor’s pay level’. An organization’s compensation system should be consistent with the overall strategy of the organization. Success depends on displaying consistent strategy supported by complementary organization structures, designs and management process. The two major strategic initiatives that occur today are growth and retrenchment. Anthony, Kacmar and Perrewe (2002, p. 04) mentioned ‘Firm’s growth mode would focus on employee performance and especially on external performance. This would force firms to pay attention to external competitiveness and equity. Total compensation packages would be oriented towards incentives and would be driven by recruitment needs’. Figure 4: Framewo rk for strategic pay design Source: Williams (1999) To develop pay practices intended to become best, an organization must first recognize the importance of building reward and recognition practices within a framework that ultimately addresses both the extrinsic and intrinsic aspects of employee recognition and reward. Williams (1999) explained the framework using the Figure 3 ‘this framework begins with the organizations strategic business objectives and then considers company culture, values, and performance measurement capabilities as critical elements in the overall design strategy. Programs are designed to motivate performance aligned with critical business objectives and reward contribution and results in ways that are meaningful to employees and consistent with company values’. When designing a pay system it is vital for organizations to take a note of the relationship between pay and employee performance when planning strategies for achieving and sustaining competitive advantage. Anthony, Kacmar and Perrewe (2002, p. 419) stated ‘equity theory proposes that employees examine the relationship between their outcomes from the job (such as pay, job satisfaction, recognition and promotion) and their inputs (such as education, skill, and effort). Dissatisfaction probably does not occur if positive inequity (the person feels over-rewarded)’. Satisfaction will lead to productivity that is the key to competitive advantage. So it is necessary for organizations to formulate strategic compensation and reward systems and implement it for achieving their goals and objectives. Refer to Appendix 4 for further understanding of strategic rewarding and how Southwest Airlines design and implement rewarding strategies to achieve its goals and objectives and to be a successful competitor in today’s competitive environments. Importance of SHRM HRM today has taken a wider role in overall organizational strategy. HRM plays a vital role in creating and sustaining competitive advantage of an organization. There is a growing need for organizations to practice SHRM because of the evolving changes that businesses need to adopt to be successful in achieving its short and long term strategic goals and objectives in the competitive environments that it exists in. Nankervis, Baird and Compton (2002. p. 22) stated the roles of SHRM to be ‘responsive to highly competitive workplace and global business structures; closely linked to business strategic goals; jointly conceived and implemented by both line and HR managers and focused on quality, customer service, productivity, employee involvement, teamwork and workforce flexibility’. This shows the benefits of SHRM and suggests that by successfully implementing SHRM, the organization goals and objectives can be met to achieve competitive advantage. ‘The bridge between HR strategy and HR functions is the formulation of human resource plan (HRP) that incorporate the desired outcomes of HR strategies, are responsive to continual changes in industry environments and can be operationalized through efficient and effective HR functions’ Nankervis, Baird and Compton (2002. p. 79). For SHRM to be successfully implemented it is necessary to follow a process of SHRP. SHRP can be said to be the foundation of SHRM. Nankervis, Baird and Compton (2002. p. 79) ‘HRP allows the HRM functions to position itself to take the best advantage of fluctuations in the economy or labour market. The likely effects of future economic, social and legislative conditions, or organizational changes, can be converted from constraints and pressures to challenges and opportunities’. SHRP therefore can help businesses to seek advantages from the limiting factors while implementing strategic plans. For example if organizations make a decision to downsize, it might lead to loss of specialist staff and valuable intellectual capital. It might even lead to poor corporate image that lead to breakdown of psychological contract between employers and their staff which result in poor performance and loss of competitiveness. Downsizing is seen as a strategic HR tool to shape the organizations future with a well prepared HR strategy. If SHRP is not followed while implanting strategic plans it can lead an organization to loose its competitive edge. Nankervis, Baird and Compton (2002. p. 0) mentioned ‘the failure to adequately plan for an organization’s human resource, can result in losses in efficiency and sustainable costs to the organization, through unstaffed vacancies, expensive replacement training, over hiring or fragmented career management’. Nankervis, Baird and Compton (2002. p. 80) also mentioned ‘by SHRP which focused in retraining, multi-skilling, or e arly retirement campaigns reduces the high financial costs (e. g. outplacement fees, termination and superannuation payments) and the adverse effects on employee morale of poor planned redundancies’. Conclusion As effective HRM practices are strategic, contributing to the goals and objectives of organizations, SHRM has shown to enhance organizations performance by contributing to employee and customer satisfaction, innovation, productivity, development of favorable reputation and profitability. Employees today are trying to learn new things and organizations are adapting characteristics of learning organizations to address the issues of globalization and changes revolving around like technological changes. HRM functions are interrelated with one another making it vital for organizations to take a holistic view in strategy formulation and implementation to reach the organizational strategic goals and objectives to achieve and sustain the competitive advantage. WORD COUNT: 2642 List of References Books Anthony, W. P. , Kacmar, K. M. and Perrewe, P. L. (2002), Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach, 4th edition, South Western Thomson Learning, Ohio, U. S. Armstrong, M. (1991), A Handbook of Personnel Management Practice, Kogan Page, London, U. K. Leopold, J. , Harris, L. and Watson, T. 2005), The Strategic Managing of Human Resources, Prentice Hall, London, U. K. Mondy, R. W. and Noe, R. M. (2005), Human resources Management, 9th edition, Pearson, New Jersey, U. S. Nankervis, A. , Compton, R. and Baird, M. (2002), Strategic Human Resource Management, 4th edition, Thomson, Australia. Noe R. A. (2005), Employees Training and Development, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, U. S. No e, R. A. , Hollenbeck, J. R. , Gerhart, B. and Wright, P. M. (2006), Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, U. S. Journals Fottler, M. D. Phillips, R. L. , Blair, J. D. and Duran, C. A. (1990) ‘Achieving Competitive Advantage through Strategic Human Resource Management’, Hospital Health Services Administration. (last viewed on 22nd august 2007). http://proquest. umi. com/pdf/b20ab77d0af6f502d6fa5273feb65c6d/1187785739/share2/pqimage/irs2/20070822075858556/4858/out. pdf Loucks, P. (2007), ‘Plugging into performance management’ Canadian HR Reporter. Toronto (last viewed on 22nd August 2007). http://proquest. umi. com/pqdweb? index=11=1227887641=1=4=3=PROD=PQD=309=PQD=1187875162=63584 Singh, P. (2002), ‘Strategic reward systems at Southwest Airlines’, Compensation and Benefits Review, Saranac Lake (last viewed on 22nd August 2007) http://proquest. umi. com/pqdweb? index=9=113196055=1=1=4=PROD=PQD=309=PQD=1187868971=63584 Williams, V. L. (1999), ‘Compensation done the right way’, Vol. 78, Costa Mesa, (last viewed on 22nd August 2007) http://proquest. umi. com/pqdweb? index=9=47187924=1=1=4=PROD=PQD=309=PQD=1187862655=63584 APPENDIX 1: Characteristics of SHRM A longer term focus – an inclusion of multiple-year strategic plans for human resource use is often considered the first step in the evolution of a strategically oriented HRM function. New linkages between HRM and strategic planning have emerged as a critical element in many implementations, while a two-way linkage describes a more proactive approach where HRM exerts influence on strategy formulation as well Proposed linkages between HRM and organizational performance – most models of SHRM include the proposition that HRM plays a key role in the achievement of strategic goals. Since the expected outcome of company strategies is an improvement in the firm’s economic value, HRM must thus directly contribute to the firm’s ‘bottom line’ in order to be judged effectively. Inclusion of line managers in the HRM policy-making process – the recognition of HRM’s strategic importance may make it more of a line management responsibility, particularly in areas involving the selection and compensation of managers. A CEO of a large trucking company echoed this sentiment to us when he told us that ‘HRM is too important to be left to the HRM department’. Source: Nankervis, Campton and Baird (2002, p. 3) APPENDIX 2: Why human resource strategy? ?Defines opportunities and barriers for achievement of business objective. ?Prompts new thinking about issues; orients and educates participants and provide a wide perspective. ?Tests management commitment for actions; creates a process for allocating resources to specific program and activities. ?Develops a sense of urgency and commitment to action. ?Establishes selected long-term courses of action considered to be of high priority over the next two to three years ? Provides a strategic focus for managing the business and developing management talents. Source: Nankervis, Campton and Baird (2002, p. 42) APPENDIX 3: Strategic training and development initiatives and their implications STRATEGIC TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT INITIVESIMPLICATIONS Diversify the learning portfolioUse new technology such as the internet for training Facilitate informal learning Provide more personalized learning opportunities Expand who is trainedTrain customers, suppliers and employees Offer more learning opportunities to non-managerial employees Accelerate the pace of employee learningQuickly identify needs and provide a high-quality learning solution Reduce the time to develop training programs Facilitate access to learning resources on an as-needed basis Improve customer serviceEnsure that employees have product and service knowledge Ensure that employees have skills needed to interact with customers Ensure that employees understand their roles and decision making authority Provide development opportunities and communicate to employeesEnsure that employees have opportunities to develop Ensure that employees understand career opportunities and personal growth opportunities Ensure that training and development addresses employees need in current job as well as growth opportunities Capture and share knowledgeCapture insight and information from knowledge, skills, abilities, or competencies Logically organize and store information Provide methods to make information available (e. g. resources guides, websites) Align training and development with the company’s strategic decisionsIdentify needed knowledge, skills, abilities, or competencies Ensure that current training and development programs support the company’s strategic needs Ensure that the work environment supports learning and transfer of trainingRemove constraints to learning, such as lack of time, resources, and equipment Dedicate physical space to encourage teamwork, collaboration, creativity, and knowledge sharing Ensure that employees understand the importance of learning Ensure that managers and peers are supportive of training, development and learning Source: Noe (2005, p. 46) APPENDIX 4: Strategic reward system at Southwest Airlines With the dawn of the 21st century, technological, political, regulatory, demographic and economic forces unleashed in the past will continue to exert pressures on organizations to change to ensure their survival and success. Initiating and sustaining successful change require considerable thought and action on related supportive structures and systems. Organizations and their subsystems, including critical human resource management systems, have to become increasingly strategic to succeed in an environment that is in constant flux. That is, functional and unit strategies must be aligned with overall firm strategy to enhance organizational effectiveness. It is a widely held view that strategic compensation systems, an integral aspect of human resource management, are vital in ensuring desired employee behaviors and enhanced firm performance. This article provides an overview of strategic rewards and a detailed discussion of rewards at Southwest Airlines (SWA), including implications for management. The Need for Strategic Reward Systems Traditional rewards systems usually have a large proportion of the total package as base pay and just a small portion tied to employee performance as reflected in a periodic performance appraisal. Such systems emphasize Tayloristic-type management structures and systems, including functional and hierarchical differentiation in organizational structures, rigid supervisory control and strict compliance with rules. The traditional structures have changed considerably over the past few decades and will continue to do so as organizations attempt to reinvent themselves. This has led to a call for the implementation of new and more strategic rewards systems, whereby an organizations rewards systems are aligned with overall organizational strategy. Although traditional rewards continue to be used by the majority of North American organizations, there is some evidence that strategic reward systems are being implemented at an increasing rate. These strategic rewards, categorized by some researchers as the new pay,3 include performance based variable pay (individual and group based), skill-based pay (or competency- or knowledge based plans), broad banding, team-based pay and recognition programs. In general, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these reward systems suggests that the new pay strategies are related to increased employee productivity and firm performance. 4 It should be noted, however, that for some of these programs, such as broad banding and team-based pay, the empirical evidence on their effectiveness is sparse. Challenges Given the relatively strong rationale for strategic organizational rewards, why are not most, if not all, companies implementing them? There are many reasons. First, some managers lack the political will to implement changes in compensation systems that have been in place for decades. Second, there are some inherent difficulties in implementing strategic rewards. For instance, employees who do not trust management may view variable pay with suspicion. In fact, unions have generally opposed strategic reward systems based on the perception that, by reducing the proportion of an established base pay, such systems would place too much control in the hands of management. Finally, managers sometimes incorrectly perceive strategic rewards to be more costly than traditional rewards. These challenges are, however, not insurmountable. In fact, as the case study illustrates, SWA has successfully wrestled with these challenges. With appropriate supportive systems and structures, the prospects for strategic reward systems for organizations in North America appear bright for the next few decades. In fact, organizations may not have a choice if they are to successfully compete in the new marketplace. SWAs Philosophy and Strategy SWA was launched in 1971 by Herb Kelleher, its charismatic former CEO and president and now chairman of the Board of Directors, and Rollin King, a friend of Kelleher and later a board member. The company was based on the simple idea that people would fly an airline that took passengers directly where they wanted to go, when they wanted to get there, for as little money as possible, in a fun-filled environment. The airline should provide lower cost point-to-point services delivered with more efficiency and service than any of the other major airlines. The airline began with only three planes servicing three cities in Texas. Thirty years later, SWA now flies more than 64 million passengers to 58 cities in 30 states, 2,700 times a day. Over time, SWA has become the envy of the airline industry (see Exhibit 1). In fact, other airlines have unashamedly tried to imitate SW. Ns policies and strategies-with limited success. Furthermore, as airlines reel under the pressures of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, SWA is the only major airline that continues to be profitable. These accomplishments take on additional meaning because they were achieved in an industry historically regarded as one of the most turbulent, rocked by forces such as deregulation, mergers and alliances, high fuel costs, oil embargos, labor conflicts and more recently, terrorism. SWA is one of the most heavily unionized airlines, with approximately 81% of its 33,000 employees covered by union contracts. So what is SWAs recipe for success? According to industry analysts and Herb Kelleher himself, it is the culture of the firm, especially its dedication to its employees. 5 As Kelleher states, Ask anyone at Southwest for the secret of the companys success, and you are guaranteed to get the same response: the people. It is the dedication and zeal of the companys employees that have made it a premier customer service organization. Nothing comes ahead of your people. 6 Several aspects of its people-oriented culture are worth noting. Employees have considerable freedom and responsibility a nd a high level of employee involvement in decision making. The company hires the right people-those who match/fit the organization. It places an emphasis on training and flexibility in using the skills of its employees, and it uses strategic compensation and reward systems. Strategic Reward Systems Southwests compensation and reward systems are considered strategically oriented, even though most of the employees are covered by collective bargaining contracts. As one author noted, SWPs reward systems are viewed as a process for supporting and reinforcing the airlines philosophy ence salaries, variable compensation, and recognition programs are part of the process of management and highly integrated with the things leaders and people do on a day-to-day basis. 7 For analytical purposes, strategic rewards may be classified into four groups: strategic base pay, strategic benefits, strategic incentives and strategic recognition programs. EXHIBIT I Strategic Base Pay Base pay is covered largely by union contracts; however, the collective-bargaining process and end results/final contract may be viewed as extremely strategic. One of the key aspects of SWNs strategy is to retain valued employees and secure long-term commitment. These objectives are attained, in part, though seniority and job security clauses in the collective-bargaining agreement. In general, negotiated agreements reflect pay levels consistent with or slightly below market wages and salaries. This helps to keep labor costs in line with the companys low-cost provider strategy. Nevertheless, employees can share in the company success through various contingent compensation programs, thereby increasing their overall pay. In fact, many of SWAs employees are millionaires, including all of those who started with the company in 1971. The airline industry is one of the most conflict ridden industries, with seemingly never-ending labor disputes. Thus, one of SWAs strategy is to reduce such conflicts. However, this can only be achieved in an environment of trust and compromise. It is this perspective that the history making 10-year contract, signed in 1995 with its pilot union, must be viewed. In terms of executive compensation, the CEO is paid at below the median of the market for executives in companies of similar size. Other senior managers are compensated slightly above the market, but they retain a smaller portion of the companys stock. In this manner, company executives are relatively underpaid in cash compensation, but they are committed to the companys long-term financial success and growth through stock ownership. Employees and executives have the same opportunities for stock ownership. Strategic Benefits The list of employee benefits offered by SWA is truly impressive. It includes both traditional programs and a few innovative initiatives. For instance, like many other companies, SWA offers medical insurance, dental insurance, vision coverage, life insurance, long-term disability insurance, dependent care, adoption assistance and mental health assistance, among others. Many of these are at no cost to the employee. Furthermore, employees and their family fly free with SWA and enjoy discounted travel with other carriers. Employees also receive thoughtful gifts on major life achievements and a chance to celebrate often (see Exhibit 2). One of the key concepts behind this array of benefits is the assurance that employees matter at SWA and that the company will do its utmost to take care of its most important stakeholder. Benefits help to reinforce the organizations strategic intent of valuing its employees. EXHIBIT 2 Strategic Incentives The two main contingent or variable pay systems are the corporate-wide profit-sharing program and the employee stock purchase plan. The profit-sharing program, initiated in 1973, is strategic in that it encourages employees to keep costs as low as possible (thus likely higher profits), a key aspect of company strategy. Furthermore, it allows employees to share in the success of the organization. Profits are shared equally based on employee earnings and company profits, with those who work longer hours or fly extra trips receiving a larger portion of the profit-sharing payouts. Traditionally, the program is composed of a cash component, as well as a deferral to retirement account; however, as a result of employee requests, beginning in 1990 the total payout was made on a deferral basis, thereby increasing the retirement benefits of the employees. This is important in an organization that actively promotes long-term commitment from its employees. Employees are offered several investment options, including company stock, enabling many retirees to become quite wealthy. The companys employee stock purchase plan allows all employees and managers to share in the risks and success of the company. In addition to the profit-sharing investment options, employees may purchase stock from payroll deductions at a discount through the employee stock purchase plan. In fact, through these purchases, employees now own about 12% of the company. The pilot contract allows for even greater investments in the company through stock options. Employees are acutely aware that the firms performance is pivotal to their pocketbooks. In fact, the stock price is displayed in each SWA facility so as to allow the employees to keep a constant track of SWAs and their own destiny. Strategic Recognition Programs Strategic recognition programs abound at SWA. Many of these programs are specifically designed to encourage and reinforce desired behaviors and, consequently, company strategy. In fact, these programs have limited the need for more variable pay programs. Strategic recognition programs are at both the corporate and local unit levels, and reward and celebrate exemplary service and behaviors, as well as employees birthdays, anniversaries and so forth. Even though many of these programs originated and are managed at the local level, a few key characteristics emerge. They all enjoy the support of top management, with senior executives including the CEO often gracing the reward ceremonies; they mean something to employees/winners; and they encourage behaviors linked to firm strategy. Some of the thought processes and effects of these programs may be gleaned from their descriptions. These include the Heroes of the Heart program, the Presidents awards, and the Winning Spirit awards. The Heroes of the Heart program was initiated by SWAs Culture Committee in 1992. The committee wanted to devise a way to honor unsung heroes-the behind the scenes employees who customers rarely see. A subcommittee representing a wide variety of departments was established to find a unique way to honor such employees, resulting in the Heroes of the Heart recognition program. Each year, one group is selected for its outstanding efforts in serving and supporting employees in other parts of the company. The winner of the award is kept secret until Valentines Day, when the announcement is made with much pomp and ceremony at the companys headquarters in Dallas. The name of the winning group is painted on one of SWAs aircraft that carries the Heroes of the Heart insignia. An article is also run in the companys in-flight magazine, as well as its newsletter. The Presidents Awards are also given annually to employees who demonstrate values and virtues embodied in the firms strategy: showing compassion for customers, untiring support for coworkers, leading by example, keeping promises and following through, bringing fun to the job and embracing change. Each winner is given a plaque written by his or her vice president, a monetary reward and a collage of photos taken during the award ceremony. The photos of the winners are also published in the companys newsletter. The Winning Spirit Awards are given out every month to 10 to 12 employees whose actions reflect the companys values and strateg y. These awards are given to employees, nominated by colleagues and/or by customers, across SWAs system. A broad-based committee makes the final decision. Each winner is invited to the companys headquarters where the CEO reads the letter of nomination and gives a Winning Spirit lapel pin to him or her. The winner also receives a framed photo with the CEO as a follow-up gift, and an article is published in the companys newsletter. There are several other awards/recognition programs at SWA, including programs such as Together We Make It Great, Ticket to the Future, Walk a Mile, Helping Hands, Stuck on Service, and Go See Do and such awards as Joe Cool Award, Top Wrench Award, Superstars, A Shining Star and Voice Award. These exhibit similar characteristics as the above in that they promote behaviors pivotal in achieving the firms goals and strategy. The overall effects of these recognition programs and awards on SWAs bottom line is not clear; however, as Herb Kelleher stated, the case for these programs lies in the long-term effects. If you were a statistician you wouldnt [have recognition programs], because youd say, well, we could save money if we didnt do it. Southwest Airlines has the best customer complaint record in the American airline industry and who can say what that is worth? I could sit in my office one afternoon and cut SWAs budget substantially by cutting these things. But thats like cutting out your heart. 9 It is this attitude that keeps the company ticking all the way to the bank. Implications for Management There is no universal right reward strategy, and every reward system will not be equally effective. Nevertheless, a review of the literature, including relevant case studies, reveals certain core principles that can help to make reward strategies more effective. Many of these principles are exemplified in the SWA case described in this article. First, it is important that the reward is linked to what is important for the organization. That is, as the SWA case illustrates, the reward system must be aligned with organizational philosophy and strategy. In this way, the organization will encourage and reinforce behaviors and values that are crucial for success. Second, the planning and delivery of these rewards must explicitly demonstrate commitment from organizational leaders. Leaders and employees must be involved in the development of the rewards, the process must be trusted as being fair, adequate resources must be budgeted and the final announcement and delivery must convey a message that the reward is important. In SWAs case, the CEO and other executives spend considerable time and effort to ensure that these conditions are met. Third, these rewards must have meaning and value. Winning these awards must be a significant achievement, and this must be communicated throughout the organization. Winners must feel proud about their achievements, and the organization must glorify the effort. For instance, at SWA, the name of the winning team in the Heroes of the Heart program is painted on one of the airlines carriers and the effort of the winning team is communicated throughout the organization. Fourth, there must be a supportive organizational culture for these rewards to be effective. That is, there must be trust, a pervasive sense that related systems are fair and an unequivocal perception that effort is truly appreciated. Furthermore, the culture must ensure friendly competition. Also, the criteria for winning and the judging process must be clear and effectively communicated to all employees. Finally, there must be a continuous evaluation of the effectiveness of new reward systems and strategies. This implies that changes must be made to those not working at optimal levels, and the company must constantly introduce new and exciting awards. Of course, the costs of these programs must be continuously evaluated to ensure that they contribute more than what they cost the organization Source: Singh (2002)

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Perspectives on International Trade and Finance Assignment - 1

Perspectives on International Trade and Finance - Assignment Example Examples of countries that Nike Inc. imports the products from include those in parts of Asia and Taiwan. These products are imported to the United States after which further processing is carried out before exporting them to international markets. These processes involve strategies and marketing processes worth researching. This paper discuses import and export strategies of Nike Inc. that has made it successful in its business gaining fame as a leading multinational company in the world. Table of Contents Executive summary 2 Introduction 4 Import and export strategies 4 Labor specialization 5 Global competitive rivalry 5 Diversification of operating risks 5 Trademarks and patents 6 Product’s Market Potential 6 Brand image and reputation 7 Consumer preference in receiving country 7 Technical innovation 8 Evaluation, promotion and product authenticity with consumers 8 Compliance to the code of demeanor, native laws and ethics 9 Concentration of retail market share 9 Tax laws a nd unexpected Tax liabilities 9 Conclusion 10 Perspectives on international trade and finance Introduction International trade consists of exporting and imports. ... This paper mainly borrows the ideas of import and export strategies form Nike Inc. of the United States of America. Import and export strategies Domestic producers in a foreign country produce goods for export. The export of these goods normally involves permission from custom authorities in the producing country as well as the consuming country. There are many import and export strategies having differing level of risks and legal requirements. In order to get an insight into these strategies it is worthwhile discussing import and export processes. Import processes are of two types. These include: Trade and consumer goods and services Intermediate services and goods that form part of the consumer’s source chain. There exist three categories of importers: Those who seek for a product to import then later sell the same product. Importers who source for products at cheaper prices â€Å"Importers using external sourcing as part of their supply chain† (Zampetti, 2006). Labor specialization It is worth noting that importing products has advantages such as labor specialization which makes export to and import from countries efficient than manufacturing all products within a country. â€Å"A good example is Nike Inc. that buys shoes form foreign companies in Asia, Taiwan, Korea and China† (United States, 2007). Nike Inc. does so because companies in the aforementioned countries have the ability to manufacture shoes that are of high quality at low cost than they can do as Nike Inc. Global competitive rivalry Companies all over the world always compete for market superiority. â€Å"This competition spurs companies and industries to import goods of higher quality at a lower cost for purposes of